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261), it seems highly likely that the Ałamaleans were in some way of Armenian princely origin. The city had three quarters or ), dating from the twelfth century, four small seventeenth century churches of no architectural merit (Saint Zoravar, Saint Yovhannes, Saint Sargis and Saints Petros-Połos), a bridge on the Getar stream (1664) and another across the Hrazdan River (1679).
From this, and from the excellent matrimonial alliances managed by the last for his daughters, one of whom married the heir-apparent to the Georgian throne (Toumanoff, p. The urban and architectural patterns in Erevan followed the general schemes and designs in Middle Eastern cities of the period.
It was already known from the annals of the Urartian king Argišti I carved on the cliff at Van that he had settled 6,600 warriors from the land of Ṣupa (Sophene) in the city of Erebuni, which he had founded (König, 1957, pp. The first known member of the family is a certain Melikʿ Gilan (d. 189) but the first certain holder of the title “melikʿ of Erevan” was Melikʿ Ałamal (d. 260-61) and it may be from him that the family took its surname. The khan’s palace was located near one of the mosques (Luke, p. Set in a courtyard with fountains and elm trees, the Gök Jāmeʿ was the largest of the four mosques of the town and notable for its polychrome tilework, including the turquoise blue tiles of the dome for which the mosque was named.
The inception of the dom of Erevan, an institution already well known in Qarābāḡ and elsewhere in eastern Armenia (Hewsen, 1972), appears only after the cessation of the last Ottoman-Safavid war in 1639 and seems to have been a part of an overall administrative reorganization in Persian Armenia after a long period of wars and invasions. The two most impressive mosques in Erevan were the Šīr Mosque, built in 1687, and the the lovely Gök Jāmeʿ (Mosque of Heaven), built in 1776 near the end of Persian rule.
The fact that Ejmiatsin (q.v.), the Holy See of the Armenians, was located within the khanate was of great importance; it was both the spiritual and, in the absence of a state, the political center for all Armenians.
Erebuni nevertheless continued to exist but lost its former importance after the foundation of Teišebaïni, as is clear from inscriptions found in the 1960s (Salvini, 1971, pp. Muslims (Persians, Turco-Mongols, Kurds) made up 80 percent of the population and were either sedentary, semi-sedentary, or nomadic. 127-28 A2; on the origin of the warriors, see König, 1954, pp. Subsequently a number of foundation inscriptions for the city have come to light (cf. It also served the Urartian kings as a residence during campaigns against their northern neighbors (cf. While the origins of this family are obscure, the local Armenians held it in the highest regard and it seems difficult to see how the Armenians of the city, and indeed of the entire khanate, would so warmly accept the authority of an upstart family whose sole right to govern them was the authorization of the shah. The city covered an area of more than one square mile, and its environs and gardens extended some 18 miles. According to the inscription on the cliff at Van, Erebuni was founded in the fifth regnal year of Argišti, ca. 245), political, and military centers of the Urartian state (in the native tongue Biainili). 449), flourished during the reigns of Argišti and Sardurī II (until ca. , “ruler”) of Erevan, of the house of Melikʿ-Ałamalean. During the Qajar period Erevan was quite prosperous. Teišebaïni, along with many cities north of present day Erevan, was destroyed by fire, probably during a sack by the Scythians, and was not resettled, whereas in Erebuni no trace of burning or evidence of destruction could be found. at the earliest and found at Erebuni (Oganesyan, 1960, p. 175), as well as by other finds typical of the Achaemenid period (cf. Erevan then continued to be a part of Persia, serving as the center of the Khanate of Erevan. The opinion that Erebuni was the center of the Iranian satrapy of Armina (see, e.g., Oganesyan, 1973, p. Their unpopular rule ended when they were forced to withdraw after their defeat by Nāderqolī Khan (later Nāder Shah) Afšār; see AFSHARIDS).
Formerly, however, Wilhelm Eilers mentioned a derivation from Armenian , p. Second in importance only to the sirdar himself, they alone among the Armenians of Erevan were allowed to wear the dress of a Persian of rank. 1693-1716), Catur II (1716-19), Naz I (1719-21), Yakob-Jan (1721? Russian annexation of Georgia and the first Russo-Persian War in 1804 once more made Erevan the strategic center of Persian defenses in the Caucasus.