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(7) The court may probate a will without appointing a personal representative. No defect in the application or procedure relating thereto which leads to informal probate of a will renders the probate void. (d) Informal probate of a will which has been previously probated elsewhere may be granted at any time upon written application by any interested person, together with deposit of an authenticated copy of the will and of the statement probating it from the office or court where it was first probated. Unless a petition in a formal testacy proceeding also requests confirmation of the previous informal appointment, a previously appointed personal representative, after receipt of notice of the commencement of a formal probate proceeding, must refrain from exercising his power to make any further distribution of the estate during the pendency of the formal proceeding. (a) Petitions for formal probate of a will, or for adjudication of intestacy with or without request for appointment of a personal representative, must be directed to the court, request a judicial order after notice and hearing, and contain further statements as indicated in this section. If evidence concerning execution of the will is necessary, the affidavit (including an affidavit of self-proof executed in compliance with Section 62-2-503) or testimony of one of any attesting witnesses to the instrument is sufficient. (g) If a personal representative or trustee neglects or refuses to comply with any provision of Section 62-3-706 he is subject to the contempt power of the court. The duty does not extend to require information to persons who have been adjudicated in a prior formal testacy proceeding to have no interest in the estate. Duty of personal representative; inventory and appraisement. On application of any interested person, the court may require that one or more qualified appraisers be appointed to ascertain the fair market value of all or any part of the estate or may approve one or more qualified appraisers. The personal representative shall pay taxes on, and take all steps reasonably necessary for the management, protection, and preservation of, the estate in his possession. The protection here expressed is not by substitution for that provided by comparable provisions of the laws relating to commercial transactions and laws simplifying transfers of securities by fiduciaries. Execution and delivery of a deed pursuant to this subsection affects title to the subject real property to the same extent as execution and delivery of a deed by the personal representative in other cases authorized by this Code; (4) satisfy written charitable pledges of the decedent irrespective of whether the pledges constituted binding obligations of the decedent or were properly presented as claims, if in the judgment of the personal representative the decedent would have wanted the pledges completed under the circumstances; (5) if funds are not needed to meet debts and expenses currently payable and are not immediately distributable, deposit or invest liquid assets of the estate, including monies received from the sale of other assets, in federally insured interest-bearing accounts, readily marketable secured loan arrangements or other prudent investments which would be reasonable for use by trustees generally; (6) subject to the restrictions imposed in Section 62-3-711(b), acquire or dispose of an asset, including land in this or another state, for cash or on credit, at public or private sale; and manage, develop, improve, exchange, partition, change the character of, or abandon an estate asset; (7) make ordinary or extraordinary repairs or alterations in buildings or other structures, demolish any improvements, raze existing, or erect new party walls or buildings; (8) satisfy and settle claims and distribute the estate as provided in this Code; (9) enter for any purpose into a lease as lessor or lessee, with or without option to purchase or renew, but not for a term extending beyond the period of administration and, with respect to a lease with option to purchase, subject to the restrictions imposed in Section 62-3-711(b); (10) enter into a lease or arrangement for exploration and removal of minerals or other natural resources or enter into a pooling or unitization agreement; (11) vote stocks or other securities in person or by general or limited proxy; (12) pay calls, assessments, and other sums chargeable or accruing against or on account of securities, unless barred by the provisions relating to claims; (13) hold a security in the name of a nominee or in other form without disclosure of the interest of the estate but the personal representative is liable for any act of the nominee in connection with the security so held; (14) insure the assets of the estate against damage, loss, and liability and himself against liability as to third persons; (15) effect a fair and reasonable compromise with any debtor or obligor, or extend, renew, or in any manner modify the terms of any obligation owing to the estate. The minimum commission payable is fifty dollars, regardless of the value of the personal property of the estate. (a) All claims against a decedent's estate which arose before the death of the decedent, including claims of the State and any political subdivision thereof, whether due or to become due, absolute or contingent, liquidated or unliquidated, founded on contract, tort, or other legal basis, if not barred earlier by another statute of limitations or nonclaim statute; are barred against the estate, the personal representative, the decedent's heirs and devisees, and nonprobate transferees of the decedent; unless presented within the earlier of the following: (1) one year after the decedent's death; or (2) the time provided by Section 62-3-801(b) for creditors who are given actual notice, and within the time provided in Section 62-3-801(a) for all creditors barred by publication. The claim is considered presented upon the filing of the statement of claim with the court.

(b) By verifying an application for informal probate, or informal appointment, the applicant submits personally to the jurisdiction of the court in any proceeding for relief from fraud relating to the application, or for perjury, that may be instituted against him. (e) A will of a nonresident decedent which has not been probated and is not eligible for probate under subsection (a)(5) may nevertheless be probated in this State upon receipt by the court of a copy of the will authenticated as true by its legal custodian together with the legal custodian's certificate that the will is not ineligible for probate under the law of the other place. A petitioner who seeks the appointment of a different personal representative in a formal proceeding also may request an order restraining the acting personal representative from exercising any of the powers of his office and requesting the appointment of a special administrator. A petition for formal probate of a will: (1) requests an order as to the testacy of the decedent in relation to a particular instrument which may or may not have been informally probated and determining the heirs; (2) contains the statements required for informal applications as stated in the six subitems under Section 62-3-301(a)(1), and the statements required by subitems (ii) and (iii) of Section 62-3-301(a)(2); (3) states whether the original of the last will of the decedent is in the possession of the court or accompanies the petition. If the affidavit or testimony of an attesting witness is not available, execution of the will may be proved by other evidence or affidavit. The probate court, after a hearing and any notice the court may require, may issue its order imposing the sentence, fine, or penalty as it sees fit and remove the personal representative and appoint another personal representative. The information must include the name and address of the personal representative, indicate that it is being sent to persons who have or may have some interest in the estate being administered, indicate whether bond has been filed, and describe the court where papers relating to the estate are on file. (A) Within ninety days after his appointment, a personal representative, who is not a special administrator or a successor to another representative who has previously discharged this duty, shall: (1) prepare an inventory and appraisement of probate property owned by the decedent at the time of his death, listing it with reasonable detail, and indicating as to each listed item, its fair market value as of the date of the decedent's death, and the type and amount of any encumbrance that may exist with reference to any item; (2) file the original of the inventory and appraisement with the court; and (3) mail a copy of the filed inventory and appraisement to interested persons who have filed a demand for notice of the filing of the inventory pursuant to Section 62-3-204. He may maintain an action to recover possession of property or to determine the title thereto. If the personal representative holds a mortgage, pledge, lien, or other security interest upon property of another persons, he may, in lieu of foreclosure, accept a conveyance or transfer of encumbered assets from the owner thereof in satisfaction of the indebtedness secured by lien; (16) pay taxes, assessments, compensation of the personal representative, and other expenses incident to the administration of the estate; (17) sell, or exercise stock subscription or conversion rights; consent, directly or through a committee or other agent, to the reorganization, consolidation, merger, dissolution, or liquidation of a corporation or other business enterprise; (18) allocate items of income or expense to either estate income or principal, as permitted or provided by law; (19) employ persons, including attorneys, auditors, investment advisors, or agents, even if they are associated with the personal representative, to advise or assist the personal representative in the performance of his administrative duties; act without independent investigation upon their recommendations; and instead of acting personally, employ one or more agents to perform any act of administration, whether or not discretionary; (20) prosecute or defend claims, or proceedings in any jurisdiction for the protection of the estate and of the personal representative in the performance of his duties; (21) subject to the restrictions imposed in Section 62-3-711(b), sell, mortgage, or lease any real or personal property of the estate or any interest therein for cash, credit, or for part cash and part credit, and with or without security for unpaid balances; (22) continue any unincorporated business or venture in which the decedent was engaged at the time of his death (i) in the same business form for a period of not more than four months from the date of appointment of a general personal representative if continuation is a reasonable means of preserving the value of the business including good will; (ii) in the same business form for any additional period of time that may be approved by order of the court in a formal proceeding to which the persons interested in the estate are parties; or (iii) throughout the period of administration if the business is incorporated by the personal representative and if none of the probable distributees of the business who are competent adults object to its incorporation and retention in the estate; (23) make payment in cash or in kind, or partly in cash and partly in kind, upon any division or distribution of the estate (including the satisfaction of any pecuniary distribution) without regard to the income tax basis of any specific property allocated to any beneficiary and value and appraise any asset and distribute such asset in kind at its appraised value; (24) with the approval of the probate court or the circuit court, compromise and settle claims and actions for wrongful death, pain and suffering or both, and all claims and actions based on causes of actions surviving, to personal representatives, arising, asserted, or brought under or by virtue of any statute or act of this State, any state of the United States, the United States, or any foreign country; (25) donate a qualified conservation easement or fee simple gift of land for conservation on any real property of the decedent in order to obtain the benefit of the estate tax exclusion allowed under Internal Revenue Code Section 2031(c) as defined in Section 12-6-40(A), and the state income tax credit allowed under Section 12-6-3515, if the personal representative has the written consent of all of the heirs, beneficiaries, and devisees whose interests are affected by the donation. If two or more persons are appointed corepresentatives and unless the will provides otherwise, the concurrence of all is required on all acts connected with the administration and distribution of the estate. (b) Additionally, a personal representative may receive not more than five percent of the income earned by the probate estate in which he acts as fiduciary. Proceedings for review of employment of agents and compensation of personal representatives and employees of estate. (b) A claim described in subsection (a) which is barred by the nonclaim statute of the decedent's domicile before the giving of notice to creditors in this State is barred in this State. If a claim is not yet due, the date when it will become due must be stated.

The commencement of the legal proceeding under this subsection must occur within the time limit for presenting the claim as set forth in Section 62-3-803. If any assets of the estate are encumbered by mortgage, pledge, lien, or other security interest, the personal representative may pay the encumbrance or any part thereof, renew, or extend any obligation secured by the encumbrance or convey or transfer the assets to the creditor in satisfaction of his lien, in whole or in part, whether or not the holder of the encumbrance has presented a claim, if it appears to be for the best interest of the estate. (a) All assets of estates being administered in this State are subject to all claims, allowances, and charges existing or established against the personal representative wherever appointed. Part 9 Special Provisions Relating to Distribution Successors' rights if no administration. (2) Any devise payable in money may be satisfied by value in kind provided: (i) the person entitled to the payment has not demanded payment in cash; (ii) the property distributed in kind is valued at fair market value as of the date of its distribution; and (iii) no residuary devisee has requested that the asset in question remain a part of the residue of the estate. Purchasers from distributees or personal representatives protected.

(4) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, no presentation of a claim is required in regard to matters claimed in proceedings against the decedent which were pending at the time of the decedent's death. When a claim against the estate has been presented in any manner, the personal representative may, if it appears for the best interest of the estate, compromise the claim, whether due or not due, absolute or contingent, liquidated or unliquidated. (c) In case the family exemptions and allowances, prior charges, and claims of the entire estate exceed the total value of the portions of the estate being administered separately and this State is not the state of the decedent's last domicile, the claims allowed in this State shall be paid their proportion if local assets are adequate for the purpose, and the balance of local assets shall be transferred to the domiciliary personal representative. Persons entitled to property by exemption or intestacy may establish title thereto by proof of the decedent's ownership, his death, and their relationship to the decedent. (a) Except as provided in subsection (b), and except as provided in connection with the share of the surviving spouse who elects to take an elective share, shares of distributees abate, without any preference or priority as between real and personal property, in the following order: (1) property not disposed of by the will; (2) residuary devises; (3) general devises; (4) specific devises. For assets which do not have readily ascertainable values, a valuation as of a date not more than thirty days prior to the date of distribution, if otherwise reasonable, controls. To be protected under this provision, a purchaser or lender need not inquire whether a personal representative acted properly in making the distribution in kind, even if the personal representative and the distributee are the same person, or whether the authority of the personal representative had terminated before the distribution.

(5) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, no proceeding for enforcement or allowance of a claim or collection of a debt may be commenced more than thirty days after the personal representative has mailed a notice of disallowance or partial disallowance of the claim in accordance with the provisions of Section 62-3-806. Effect of Amendment The 2013 amendment rewrote the section. (a) As to claims presented in the manner described in Section 62-3-804(1) within the time limit prescribed in Section 62-3-803, within sixty days after the presentment of the claim, or within fourteen months after the death of the decedent, whichever is later, the personal representative must serve upon the claimant a notice stating the claim has been allowed or disallowed in whole or in part. If local assets are not sufficient to pay all claims allowed in this State the amount to which they are entitled, local assets shall be marshaled so that each claim allowed in this State is paid its proportion as far as possible, after taking into account all dividends on claims allowed in this State from assets in other jurisdictions. Successors take subject to all charges incident to administration, including the claims of creditors and subject to the rights of others resulting from abatement, retainer, advancement, ademption, and elective share. For purposes of abatement, a general devise charged on any specific property or fund is a specific devise to the extent of the value of the property on which it is charged, and upon the failure or insufficiency of the property on which it is charged, a general devise to the extent of the failure or insufficiency. For purposes of facilitating distribution, the personal representative may ascertain the value of the assets as of the time of the proposed distribution in any reasonable way, including the employment of qualified appraisers, even if the assets may have been previously appraised. Any instrument described in this section on which the deed recording fee prescribed by Chapter 24, Title 12, has been paid, and which has been recorded is prima facie evidence that the sale was made for value.

Upon the death of a person, his real property devolves to the persons to whom it is devised by his last will or to those indicated as substitutes for them in cases involving lapse, renunciation, or other circumstances affecting the devolution of testate estates, or in the absence of testamentary disposition, to his heirs, or to those indicated as substitutes for them in cases involving renunciation or other circumstances affecting the devolution of intestate estates, subject to the purpose of satisfying claims as to exempt property rights and the rights of creditors, and the purposes of administration, particularly the exercise of the powers of the personal representative under Sections 62-3-709, 62-3-710, and 62-3-711, and his personal property devolves, first, to his personal representative, for the purpose of satisfying claims as to exempt property rights and the rights of creditors, and the purposes of administration, particularly the exercise of the powers of the personal representative under Sections 62-3-709, 62-3-710, and 62-3-711, and, at the expiration of three years after the decedent's death, if not yet distributed by the personal representative, his personal property devolves to those persons to whom it is devised by will or who are his heirs in intestacy, or their substitutes, as the case may be, just as with respect to real property. (d) If the administration is necessary, appointment of one who has equal or lower priority may be made as follows within the discretion of the court: (1) informally if all those of equal or higher priority have filed a writing with the court renouncing the right to serve and nominating the same person in his place; or (2) in the absence of agreement, informally in accordance with the requirements of Section 62-3-310; or (3) in formal proceedings. The clerk shall mail a copy of the demand to the personal representative if one has been appointed. (A) If two or more instruments are offered for probate before a final order is entered in a formal testacy proceeding, more than one instrument may be probated if neither expressly revokes the other or contains provisions which work a total revocation by implication. (3) A petition for vacation under either (1) or (2) above must be filed prior to the earlier of the following time limits: (i) If a personal representative has been appointed for the estate, the time of entry of any order approving final distribution of the estate. Formal proceedings concerning appointment of personal representative. Interim orders approving or directing partial distributions or granting other relief may be issued by the court at any time during the pendency of an administration under Part 5 [Sections 62-3-501 et seq.] on the application of the personal representative or any interested person. This form must be filed with the court simultaneously with the affidavit required by item (1) above. (5) The bond of the personal representative is not void after the first recovery but may be proceeded against from time to time until the whole penalty is exhausted. (b) The matter shall be set for hearing within ten days or at such other times as the parties may agree. Termination does not discharge a personal representative from liability for transactions or omissions occurring before termination, or relieve him of the duty to preserve assets subject to his control, to account therefor, and to deliver the assets. When the resignation is effective, the personal representative's attorney of record shall be relieved of any further duties to the court. If removal is ordered, the court also shall direct by order the disposition of the assets remaining in the name of, or under the control of, the personal representative being removed. Effect of Amendment The 2013 amendment added subsection (c), relating to termination of appointment. Except as otherwise ordered in formal proceedings, the probate of a will subsequent to the appointment of a personal representative in intestacy or under a will which is superseded by formal probate of another will, or the vacation of an informal probate of a will subsequent to the appointment of the personal representative thereunder, does not terminate the appointment of the personal representative although his powers may be reduced as provided in Section 62-3-401. and Sections 62-3-401 et seq.] govern proceedings for appointment of a personal representative to succeed one whose appointment has been terminated. If it appears to the court that an emergency exists, appointment may be ordered without notice. (b) A personal representative shall not be surcharged for acts of administration or distribution if the conduct in question was authorized at the time. Effect of Amendment The 2013 amendment, in subsection (a), deleted "applicable to trustees as" before "described by Section 62-7-804" in the first sentence; and in the third sentence of subsection (b), inserted "Upon expiration of the relevant claim period,", and substituted "has not received actual notice" for "is not aware".

Effect of Amendment The 2013 amendment inserted "and except as to a will that has been admitted to probate in another jurisdiction which is filed as provided in Article 4", and substituted "nominate a personal representative" for "nominate an executor". Except as otherwise provided in this article [Sections 62-3-101 et seq.] and in Article 4 [Sections 62-4-101 et seq.], to acquire the powers and undertake the duties and liabilities of a personal representative of a decedent, a person must be appointed by order of the court, qualify, and be issued letters. After the appointment and until distribution, all proceedings and actions to enforce a claim against the estate are governed by the procedure prescribed by this article [Sections 62-3-101 et seq.]. Proceedings affecting devolution and administration; jurisdiction of subject matter. In proceedings within the jurisdiction of the court where notice is required by this Code or by rule, and in proceedings to construe probated wills or determine heirs which concern estates that have not been and cannot now be opened for administration, interested persons may be bound by the orders of the court in respect to property in or subject to the laws of this State by notice in conformity with Section 62-1-401. These limitations do not apply to proceedings to construe probated wills or determine heirs of an intestate. (d) For the purpose of aiding determinations concerning location of assets which may be relevant in cases involving nondomiciliaries, a debt, other than one evidenced by investment or commercial paper or other instrument in favor of a nondomiciliary, is located where the debtor resides or, if the debtor is a person other than an individual, at the place where it has its principal office. Appointment or testacy proceedings; conflicting claim of domicile in another state. Priority among persons seeking appointment as personal representative. If bond is required and the provisions of the will or order do not specify the amount, unless stated in his application or petition, the person qualifying shall file a statement under oath with the court indicating his best estimate of the value of the personal estate of the decedent and of the income expected from the personal estate during the next year, and he shall execute and file a bond with the court, or give other suitable security, in an amount not less than the estimate. Effect of Amendment The 2013 amendment inserted "or dispense with the bond" at the end. Any person apparently having an interest in the estate worth in excess of five thousand dollars, or any creditor having a claim in excess of five thousand dollars, may make a written demand that a personal representative give bond. Effect of Amendment The 2013 amendment substituted "five thousand dollars" for "one thousand dollars" throughout, and inserted "unless good cause is shown for the delay" at the end. (a) The following requirements and provisions apply to any bond required by this part: (1) Bonds shall name the judge of the court as obligee for the benefit of the persons interested in the estate and shall be conditioned upon the faithful discharge by the fiduciary of all duties according to law. The value of the property is charged to the executor de son tort. Order for executor de son tort to account for deceased's property; decree for damages. Effect of Amendment The 2013 amendment rewrote the section. Effect of Amendment The 2013 amendment rewrote the section.

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The court shall direct the petitioner to report the results of, or make and report back concerning, a reasonably diligent search for the alleged decedent in any manner that may seem advisable, including any or all of the following methods: (1) by inserting in one or more suitable periodicals a notice requesting information from any person having knowledge of the whereabouts of the alleged decedent; (2) by notifying law enforcement officials and public welfare agencies in appropriate locations of the disappearance of the alleged decedent; (3) by engaging the services of an investigator. (e) If more than one personal representative is serving an estate, the court in its discretion shall apportion the compensation among the personal representatives, but the total compensation for all personal representatives of an estate must not exceed the maximum compensation allowable under subsections (a) and (b) for an estate with a sole personal representative. (d) Notwithstanding subsections (a) and (b), notice to creditors under this section is not required if a personal representative is not appointed to administer the decedent's estate during the one year period following the death of the decedent. For purposes of Section 62-3-803, the claim is considered to be presented when the application or petition for appointment is filed with the written statement of the claim attached.

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